Glossary of Terms
Air – To allow the dog to empty his
bowels and bladder.
AFC – Amateur Field Champion. An
AKC Field Trial Title. To attain the title of Amateur Field Champion with
points earned in the Amateur All-Age, a retriever must be handled by an amateur
and earn fifteen points, of which five must be for a first place. Open All-Age
points combined with Amateur All-Age points also count toward the fifteen
points required for the Amateur Field Championship. 1st Place – 5 Points; 2nd
Place – 3 Points; 3rd Place – 2 Points; 4th Place – ó Point.
AKC – American Kennel Club
Amateur – One who trains dogs for the
pleasure of it and receives no payment for it. A person who has not earned any part of his or
her livelihood from the training, trialing or handling of a dog in field
competition at any level.
Amateur All-Age Stake – A field trial stake in which
only amateurs, not professionals, are allowed to handle a dog.
Amish Training – The art of training a dog
without the use of an E Collar.
Angle Back – Usually defined as the dog
turning and going back at a 45-degree angle from the shoulder instead of
turning 90-degrees and going straight back. Ideally, what you really want when
you give an angle back cast is for the dog to leave the line he is on, move over
several degrees at an oblique angle and then go straight back.
Angling – To cross terrain or enter
water on a diagonal line.
Angle Entry- The path to/from retrieve involves the dog
entering water (or cover) at an angle. They
are quite difficult
for most dogs because in their mind it's easier, and faster to simply square
the shore (or cover) as they begin their swim to the opposite side or cut
through the cover. The finer the angle the more difficult they
are to get the dog to do them.
Area of the Fall – Used to describe the place
where the bird has fallen to the ground and the adjacent area around the bird.
The dog should go to the area of the fall and establish a hunt to find the bird
without leaving the area of the fall and disturbing too much cover. The size of
the area of the fall for any given mark is a matter of judgment. Retriever
folks have developed the following as an initial rough estimate:
area of the fall is a circle around the bird with a radius measuring about 10%
(or a diameter of 20%) of the distance from the “line” to the bird, the “line”
being the spot from which the dog saw the bird fall. For example, for a 100
yard mark, the area of the fall would have a 20 yard diameter. Circumstances can affect the size, shape, and
even location of the area of the fall. For example, in a double mark, the area
of the fall for the second bird retrieved (the “memory bird”) is larger than
that for the first bird retrieved (the “go bird”), because the dog must remember
the former while retrieving the latter. A strong wind not only changes the
shape of the area from circular to conical, but also shifts it downwind so the
bird lies nearer the narrow end of the cone. Trainers/handlers make these
adjustments to be reasonable in their expectations of their dogs. But no matter
how it is defined for a particular mark, the area of the fall sets the
boundaries within which the dog should hunt for the bird. As long as he is hunting
diligently within that area, he’s doing a good job, even if he hunts quite some
time before producing the bird.
Attrition – A method of teaching that relies on repeating a concept by stopping a dog each time he makes or repeats an error, and the desired
command or cast is repeated until the dog complies. The dog learns the
lesson by doing it over and over until he does it correctly.
Balk – Refusal to leave on a
retrieve when sent. Also called a "no-go".
Back – A command that tells the dog
to leave the handler’s side and go in a straight direction away from the handler.
Usually used on a blind, although in some areas of the country it is also used
for marks. It is also a directional signal that tells the dog to turn and run
straight back after being commanded to sit (via whistle or voice) in the field
and look at the handler.
Bank Run – on a water retrieve, the dog
runs along the bank (shore) before entering the water, or runs around the whole
pond, doesn't even get its feet wet. Why? Well, the dog may really hate water:
But, any untrained dogs will bank run occasionally, given the opportunity
(i.e., part way on shore brings it directly in line with the bird, requiring
less swimming). So, in the beginning, throws should be straight out from shore,
not at an angle, with the dog sitting close to the water.
Basics – The beginning commands a dog
learns as the basis of advanced work - heel, come (here), and sit. Also, simple
handling and lining drills, force fetch.
Baseball – A beginning drill used to
teach the dog to take hand signals. A precursor for blinds.
Big Hunt – When a dog cannot find a mark
and runs all over the field looking for it. Not a good thing.
Bird Bolter – A dog who picks up the bird
or dummy and runs away with it.
Bird Boy – The person who throws birds
or bumpers during a trial, test or training session; may also be referred to as
Birdiness – A desirable quality in a dog
that describes a high interest in birds, high desire to retrieve birds.
Blank Pistol – A pistol with a solid barrel,
meant for firing blanks only, to simulate the sound of a gun.
Blind – Three meanings:
bird or object (such as a dummy) to be retrieved that is placed at a distance
and which is not seen by the dog. (As opposed to a “marked” fall, which is one
the dog sees fall to the ground.)
structure, usually camouflaged, from which birds or other objects to be
retrieved are thrown and where gunners and throwers may conceal themselves.
3. The holding blind - A fabric screen put
in place for a dog and handler
to stand behind to prevent a dog from viewing a test before he has run.
Blind Planter – This is the person who places
a bird or bumper at a designated spot for a blind retrieve.
Blind Retrieve – A retrieve of a bird that the
dog did not see thrown, the dog is directed to the blind through the use of
hand signals, whistle and/or voice commands.
Blink – When the dog goes by an
object that it has clearly seen and is supposed to have retrieved and refuses
to pick it up after locating it. The dog runs out to the area of the fall,
looks directly at the bumper/bird, pauses next to it, then leaves and continues
to hunt around acting as if he has never seen it.
Blinking—When a dog goes to the area of
the fall, finds the mark, but refuses to pick it up.
Bolt – An escape mechanism a dog
attempts when too much pressure is applied and it doesn't understand what's
going on, so it decides to "leave" the area by bolting.
Break or breaking – This is when a dog that is
being judged (either at the line or during the honor) goes for the bird before
the judge has instructed the handler to release the working dog (as opposed to
the honor dog). If a working dog breaks or an honoring dog breaks the breaking
dog is disqualified.
Bulldog – A mark that is thrown while a
dog is returning from another retrieve. Also known as a diversion. The dog must not switch birds ie: must not drop the
first bird he picked up in order to retrieve the diversion bird.
Bumper – A retrieval object; typically
plastic or canvas, usually 2 or 3 inches in diameter, used to train the dog.
They are available in a wide assortment of colors. However, white is the most
visible and is generally used for marks. Black or orange bumpers are generally
used for blinds. Most dogs cannot see orange well and these are generally used
on blind retrieves so a dog does not see them from a distance.
Burn – Terminology used to describe
an e-collar correction that is continuous instead of a "Nick" which
is a momentary correction. Used to correct a known command that the dog is choosing
to disregard. There is no physical harm to the dog.
Call Back – A list provided by Hunt Test
or Field Trial judges prior to the next series in an event. This list denotes
those who are invited back to continue participating in the event. Those who do not make the "call
back" have been disqualified for some reason.
Cast/Casting – To give the dog a specific
direction to a marked fall or a blind through the use of arm/body movements. The direction given a dog on a blind retrieve
after he has stopped on the whistle. The
handler gives the signal with his arm and/or voice, either a right or left
“over” cast or a “back” cast. The dog, taking this direction, is considered to
be on cast, or casting.
Cast Refusal – Dog fails to go in the
direction ordered. The dog does not
respond or does not respond correctly to the direction or cast given by the
Channel – A narrow body of water.
Channel Blind – A water blind run in an area
that, due to the close proximity of the bank on both sides, makes it very
tempting for the dog to exit the water and get up on land. A narrow channel.
Channeling – A dog that swims down the
center of a narrow body of water (channel) lengthwise without touching land.
Cheat – To avoid obstacles.
Cheating – When a dog avoids cover or
obstacles en route to or returning from an item to be retrieved.
Check cord – A length of cord, usually 20 to 30 feet long. and usually stiff in composition so
as to not tangle easy in heavy cover, with a brass snap on one end. The single most important purpose of the check-cord is to
control your dog at a distance during training.
CKC – Canadian Kennel Club.
Cold – A term used to define the
running of a dog on a concept it is familiar with but the exact placement of
the object is new to the dog. (Example: Cold Blind). When we train, we generally
run our dogs on "cold" marks and/or blinds. Our dogs know how to mark
or run a blind, but they don’t know the exact location of this specific mark or
Cold Blind – Means that the dog has no
idea of where the bird is – he didn't see it fall, its location is not part of
a "pattern" he recognizes, nor is it at a location he's been to
before (a "permanent" blind).
blind retrieve that the dog has never run before.
blind retrieve before running any marks.
Collar Conditioning – A process by which the dog is
taught how to turn off the electronic collar stimulation and how to respond to
e-collar pressure appropriately. To
acclimate a dog to accept electric collar stimulation as a training aid.
Conditioned Retriever – A dog that has been trained
to respond to electric stimulation.
Controlled break— A dog that tries to break but
is successfully called back by the handler after a short distance. Permissible
but subject to penalty in some hunt test and field trial events
Junior and Senior levels, the dog may have a controlled break. If the dog
leaves for the birds before being released by the handler, but the handler is
able to stop the dog by whistle or voice command, the dog and handler will be
allowed to finish the series. Yelling NO! is not an acceptable command for
stopping the dog. Most handlers will use HEEL! or HERE! To have the dog return
to the handler. Judges will also establish an acceptable distance for the controlled
break to occur within. If the dog is beyond that point before the handler
recalls the dog, or if the dog does not respond to the handler’s commands, the
dog and handler will be disqualified. Controlled breaks are not allowed at the
Master level or in all age stakes.
Cover – Indicates the various ground
covers in-between the starting line and the objects to be retrieved. Can be grass, or any other growth, on land or
in the water.
Creep – Dog moves a short distance in
the direction of a mark(s) while they are being thrown and before being sent
for the retrieve.
Creeping – When the dog moves forward on
the line but does not break out of control. This is when the dog slowly inches
from the handler’s side (or from the designated starting point) a few steps at
a time or, by scooting or creeping along the ground as the birds are being shot/thrown,
but the dog does not break. Judges will determine at what point the creeping is
too far away from the handler and may ask the handler to re-heel the dog before
releasing the dog for the retrieve.
Cue – A voice or gesture from
handler to dog used as a reminder. For
example “dead bird” indicating a blind or “mark” indicating that a mark is
about to be thrown.
Dead – A bird that has been
previously shot. Can also mean a command
given to the dog on the line by the handler preparing the dog for a blind
Dead Bird – A cue given to the dog on the
line by the handler preparing the dog for a blind retrieve.
De-bolting – A term identifying the
process used to teach the dog it cannot "run away"/"bolt" from
the stimulation caused by the e collar. Typically,
“safe” places are provided for the dog to hide during the exercise, and then
the dog is forced out of them, helping him to overcome his fear of pressure.
Delayed Bird – A bird that is shot after one
or more birds in a set up have been retrieved by a dog.
Deliver to hand – This is used to describe how
the dog should return with the bird. The dog must carry the bird lightly (no
chewing), return to the handler and hold the bird until the handler signals the
dog to release the bird into the handler’s hand. The release should be easy and smooth—no tug
of war or repeated dropping and picking up by the dog. IF THE DOG DROPS THE BIRD, THE DOG MUST PICK
THE BIRD BACK UP AND DELIVER TO THE HANDLER. If the handler picks the bird up from the
ground, or touches the bird on the ground, the handler and dog will be
disqualified. The bird must be “fit for
human consumption,” which means not eaten, chewed or damaged by the dog.
Derby – Derby Stake. AKC field event
or “stake” for dogs over 6 months of age but not over 2 years, as of the first
day of the event. A Derby is made up of marked falls only. Marking ability and
style constitute the most important factors for placing in the Derby Blind
retrieves are not required in the Derby stake. A Derby dog is judged on style
and marking ability and is not expected to “handle” to a bird. 1st Place – 5
Points; 2nd Place – 3 Points; 3rd Place – 2 Points; 4th Place –1
List – The "National" list of Derby dogs earning ten points or more.
Diversion – A distraction, of some sort,
including but not limited to a bird, a shot, a person moving, talking, yelling
or walking, etc. done in dog games to test against switching, or dropping. Diversions in dog games are commonly a thrown
bird as the dog returns from a retrieve. Sometimes these become part of a
refer to a “dry shot” which is a blank gun blast that is not associated with a
mark or blind retrieve. Or, there can be
a “diversion bird” thrown. This is when
the dog has seen a multiple mark thrown (double, triple, etc.) and has been
sent to retrieve at least one of the marks. As the dog is returning to the handler,
another bird is thrown and a shot fired. The dog now has another bird to remember and
retrieve as well as completing the multiple marks.
Double – Two consecutive retrieves or
marks. Two objects a dog sees thrown for
it to retrieve. These objects are not
thrown at the same time. A double tests
the dog’s memory as it must pick up one object, return to its handler, then go
get the other object and bring it back.
Dragback (dragscent) – Scent trail left by dogs
returning to the line with birds from a mark or blind, especially through high
cover where the bird’s scent is left on vegetation.
Drill – A training exercise that
contains repetition of a focused theme of training.
Dry Shot – A shot that is fired without
throwing a bird. The dry shot will
provide a diversion when used with other retrieves.
Dummy – An object retrieved by the
retriever. (i.e., a bumper).
Dummy Collar – A collar that is the exact
duplicate of an e collar in size, shape, and weight but cannot produce
E Collar – A tool used by the trainer
and worn by the dog that enables the trainer to make an instant correction from
a distance through the use of small amounts of electricity. It is an invaluable training tool when
properly used. It is also the fastest
way to ruin a good dog if used improperly.
Entry – Two meanings:
spot at which a dog enters the water on either a blind or mark. If it enters
the water at a close angle to shore, it is called an “angle entry.”
dog’s manner of entering the water is called his “water entry.”
Establish a hunt – When the dog goes to the area
of the fall for the bird, but does not find the bird immediately, the dog gets
into the area and starts to use its nose to locate the bird. This is perfectly acceptable behavior, however,
if the hunt becomes too broad, so that it is out of the area of fall as
established by the judges, the judges may score the dog lower on perseverance or
marking (remembering where the bird landed).
Factors – Elements that can throw a
retriever off course on a mark or blind. They include: wind, water, terrain, cover, and
diversions. Most advanced training
concentrates on teaching the dog to deal with these factors. The more advanced the dog, the more they are
able to overcome various factors to hold the line.
Fall – (a.k.a. Area of the Fall) –
The spot on the ground or water where the object to be retrieved fell.
FC – Field Champion. An AKC Field
Trial title. To earn this title a dog must accumulate 10 open points, including
a win. 1st Place – 5 Points; 2nd Place – 3 Points; 3rd Place – 2 Points; 4th
Place – 1/2 Point. He may be handled by either an amateur or a professional.
Fetch – The dog moves quickly towards
the bird or bumper and picks up the object without hesitation. Also a command for the dog to pick up the object.
Field Trial – A working competition for
retrievers. The AKC/CKC licenses individual clubs to give
retriever field trials at which championship points are awarded. Competition
for retrievers for which dogs are judged on ability and style in retrieving
birds. In retriever field trials, they
are judged according to standardized objectives, and also against each other.
Placements are 1st through 4th. AKC field trials started around 1931 and are considered
by some to be the “big league” of field competition. With regards to retrievers,
accurate marking is of primary importance. The marks range from 150 yards to
upwards of 450 yards. Gunners and handlers wear white coats in the field to
make them identifiable to the dog. However, guns will “retire” or go out of
sight once the mark is thrown. A dog that marks the fall of a bird, uses the
wind, follows a strong cripple and will take direction from his handler is of
Field Work – Dog training generally
conducted away from the area around the kennel or yard. Includes concept work or marks
Flag – A visual attractant to help a
dog identify either a pile of bumpers or a blind retrieve.
Flare – When a dog avoids continuing
on a straight line on which he was sent due to pressure applied previously in
that general area.
Flat throw – Also known as a “square
throw.” A bird or bumper thrown directly
across from the thrower, i.e., neither back nor in — from the dog’s point of
view it is a 90° throw. Other types of throws are angle in and angle back
Flier (Flyer) – A live bird released into
flight during a field event and shot for the dog on the line. This is allowed in the US but not in Canada.
Flier (Flyer) Station – A point in the field from
which a bird is released and shot to be retrieved.
Flower Pot Marks – Two marks thrown from the
same gun station in different directions. Also called a "Momma-Poppa."
Force – An influence that causes
motion or a gain against resistance. If
used properly force can correct a behavior in a dog.
Force Fetching – (a.k.a., FF, Forcing, Force
Breaking, Conditioned Retrieving) The process of teaching a dog to Hold, Fetch,
and Give on command. Generally
accomplished after the adult teeth are in place in the 6 – 8 month age range
and basic obedience and Collar Conditioning are complete. This is the foundation for beginning to teach
a dog the concept of retrieves.
Force to a Pile – An extension of Force
Fetching. Pressure of some sort is
applied in association with a command to go to a pile of bumpers. Helps to create the obligation upon the dog to
so when sent to a blind retrieve. When
done properly, a dog can develop dependable and positive attitude toward his work.
Force Training – The training which teaches a
retriever that he must pick up, hold and deliver to hand any object that he is
commanded to retrieve. It is usually
done fairly early in a retriever’s training program. A dog who has had a thorough a course of force
training is said to be force trained, and should make a totally reliable
Fountain – Two marks (a double) are
thrown from two different gun stations in opposite directions, one right, one
Freezing – A dog that refuses to release
a bird to his handler is said to "freeze" on the bird.
Freezing on the Whistle – When a dog working on a blind
retrieve stops and sits to the whistle and refuses to take a cast — refuses to
move at all, but just sits there — he is freezing on the whistle.
Gallery – The spectators at a filed
trial or hunt test.
Gift – A term describing a test or
series in which the judges set up something that dogs whose owners expect some
trouble cruise through with no problem.
Go-As-Sent – Dog takes a straight line,
overcoming diversion factors and remains on the course he was sent on. This is one of the themes of advanced
Go Bird – The last object the dog sees
thrown. In a multiple mark situation, it
is generally the first item a dog will pick up.
Gun Shy – Fear of loud noises such as
gunfire to the extent that a dog is not able to perform its retrieving task or
Gun Station – Location of one or more
gunners in the field who throw/shoot a mark.
Gunner – A responsible and capable
shot gunner who must shoot each live bird (or, with a dead bird, shoot blanks)
from various designated points in the test.
Guns – Those who shoot or throw the birds at
a field trial, hunt test or in training.
Handle – To direct a dog to a
bird/dummy by using a whistle, voice and/or arm signals.
Handler – The person releasing the dog
to make a retrieve and directing the actions of the dog. He is one part of the team.
Hand Signals – A series of hand/arm motions
used to indicate to the dog which way you desire it go.
Hard Mouth – The action said to occur when
a dog uses too much force in picking up or holding a bird. A dog that is very rough on, abuses, or eats
the birds when sent to retrieve. This action
renders the bird unfit for human consumption and is a major problem.
Head Swinging – When a dog looks away from a
mark before being cued to do so by the handler.
Heel – The old definition meant to
“walk by my side.” Trainers for hunt tests and field trials now use "heel" to get a dog to catch up when lagging behind and use "here" to back up when forging ahead such as when going to line at a test or trial.
Heel Position – Dog is by the handler’s side,
traditionally the heel position is on the left hand side but dogs can heel from
Heeling Stick – A riding crop or other object
carried and used on the dog to remind it of its proper place. This is not used to abuse the dog, rather
provide a gentle, but firm, reminder of the place.
Here – This obedience command means
to come directly to me.
Hidden Gun – A mark thrown by a gunner
when the gunner is totally concealed from the dogs view. The dog hears a shot
or call and sees the object to be retrieved thrown but does not see a gunner.
Hold – A command used during force
fetch by some to ensure that the dog knows that he must hold, in his mouth, any
object placed there. Hold means keep
your mouth still when holding an object.
Holding Blind – A blind or series of blinds
erected prior to the "line" in an effort to keep dogs and handlers
available to run the test.
Honor – When one dog must watch
another dog retrieve while remaining steady. An honoring dog should watch the entire
sequence of birds decoying, flying, being shot and falling without interfering
through sound or motion with the "working dog".
Honoring – Where a dog has to watch
another dog run while waiting calmly and quietly (without additional commands)
at their handler's side while the other dog takes their turn. The act of sitting quietly and steadily on
line while another dog works.
Hot Blind – A blind that has been placed
before marks are thrown and which may influence dog to leave the area of the
fall for the marks.
Hunt Test – Non-competitive field
designed to reflect a typical day in the field (camouflage, duck calls, etc.). Dogs are judged against a standard and either
pass or fail.
Indent – A term used to identify the
placement of a shorter mark in relation to the other marks in the field. A triple is thrown, the first is 150 yards
away, the second is 75 yards away, and the third is 125 yards away. The second mark is called "indented"
relative to the two longer marks.
Indirect Pressure – A technique where the dog is
corrected on one command for failure to respond to another. Most e-collar corrections for cast refusals
are given with the “sit” command. That
is, if you give an “over” and the dog goes straight back, you might stop the dog
with the whistle and give a “nick” as the dogs sits. He is getting corrected on the sit whistle for
his failure to take the cast.
Inline – Guns are all in a straight
line, not the throws of the marks. There
can be variations of the inline concept including throwing direction, shift in
placement of gun stations, retriever guns, terrain considerations, throwing order
as well as factors such as wind and weather.
Instinct – Behavior that is naturally
ingrained in an animal.
J.A.M. – In AKC judges’ award of merit is
awarded to the dogs that complete all the tests in a satisfactory manner but to
not achieve one of the four placements.
This is field trial designation. In CKC it is called a CM - Certificate of Merit.
JH – Junior Hunter - An CKC/AKC
title used as a suffix on the dog’s registered name. The Junior Hunt Test
consists of two single marks on land and two single marks on water. For a
title, a dog must received 4 qualifying scores at a licensed test.
This is the beginning level in the CKC/AKC Hunt Test program.
Judge – The individual who establishes the tests for dogs and evaluates the dogs’ performance.
Licensed Trial – A field trial licensed by the
CKC or AKC at which championship points are awarded.
Limited Stake – This is a field trial stake
that is limited to dogs over six months of age that have placed or been awarded
a JAM or CM in an Open Stake, or that have placed first or second in a Qualifying
Stake, or placed or been awarded a JAM or CM in an Amateur Stake that is carrying championship
Line – Three meanings:
Retrieving Line – The location from where you send and receive the dog while it is working
– Also known as “Point of Origin.” The
line the dog must stay behind, while under judgment, before being sent for the
to the Mark or Blind – An imaginary straight line from the point of origin and
the bird on either a blind retrieve or mark.
Line – Direction the dog is sent on for a blind retrieve.
Line Manners – A term used to describe how a
dog acts while sitting at the "line" under judgment. Vocalizing (barking or whining), jumping,
excessive fidgeting or soiling the line are all examples of poor line manners. A dog and handler can be excused for excessive
vocalizing or other detrimental behavior.
Lining the Blind – A perfectly run blind; the
dog successfully completes a blind retrieve without requiring any whistle
commands or hand signals from the handler.
Literal Casting – A cast that, if taken
properly, would lead directly to the blind.
Loose Hunt – Hunting outside the area of
fall for a significant period of time.
Mark – Four meanings
fall of a bird/bumper which a dog should watch, remember and retrieve when
to do so; a thrown bird or bumper.
dog’s ability to see and remember where a bird fell (to “mark” the bird).
cue used to communicate to the retriever to "get ready", "pay
attention", something's about to fall or be shot.
object a dog sees thrown for it to retrieve. Usually a game bird or a training
Mark the Pile – Throw a bumper to the pile to
show the dog exactly where he will be sent.
Memory Bird – The first object in a multiple mark
situation, other than the last item, a dog has seen thrown for it to retrieve.
In a multiple mark series, the memory bird(s) is not the last bird down.
Usually, the last bird down is picked up first by the dog. He must then
remember where the others are on his own.
MH – Master Hunter - An CKC/AKC
title used as a suffix on a dog’s registered name. For this title, a dog must receive qualifying
scores at 6 licensed or member tests. If the dog has already received a SH, the
dog need only qualify 5 times. The
Master Hunt Test consists of land blinds; water blinds; multiple marks on land
(triples or quads); multiple marks on water (triples or quads); multiple marks
on both land and water; a walk up; diversion shots and/ or marks and an honor.
The Master Hunter represents a truly complete hunting dog.
Mild restraint – Only allowed at the Junior
level. Junior dogs may be brought to the line on a leash and the handler
may lightly hold the leash until signaled by the judge to release the dog.
Mama-Papa / Maw & Paw – This is marking situation
where two marks are thrown off one station in opposite directions. Also called Flower Pot Marks.
Momentum – The force or drive that a
retriever exerts in order to drive to a mark or blind.
Money Bird – The absolute last item, in a
multiple mark situation, the dog picks up. Called "Money Bird"
because in a Field Trial, if your dog doesn’t get it, you get no money! This is the key bird in a multiple marking setup.
Multiple Marks – More than one mark is thrown
before the dog is sent (allowed to retrieve).
For example, on a DOUBLE, the first bird down is called the 'memory
bird' and is followed by a second fall (go bird). Almost all dogs pick up this last one first.
Nick – A correction applied with an
e collar set to a "Momentary" setting or a tap and immediate release
of the button for those e collars without a "Momentary" setting.
No Bird – A term that refers to a
poorly thrown mark and the judge indicates that the mark was not
acceptable and it will need to be re-thrown.
No-Go – See Balk. This term is used when a dog is sent on a retrieve and he
does not go; commonly called balking.
“No-No” Drill – Any drill that is
attrition based, designed to teach straight lines through
obstacles. Dogs learn in this type drill
from repetition with NO pressure, just recall & send. You set dog up behind a log or other
obstacle, then, send it for a mark on line with the obstacle. If the dog flares (tries to avoid the
obstacle) you call him back with a simple “NO, NO” (thus the name) and then
says to a dog that what he is doing at that moment is wrong.
Obstacle – Any physical factor that a
dog must contend with while on the way to a mark or blind. Typical obstacles are: logs, rows of cover,
water, hills, ditches, roads, etc. Also called a "Hazard".
Open All-Age Stake – The toughest and most
important stake at a retriever field trial, open to professional and amateur
handlers, in which the field champions as well as young hopefuls are competing.
Marks and blinds are long and technical in nature, up to 400+ yards. Dogs must
gain one “win” and points in order to obtain the coveted title of field
Open Stake – This stake is open to dogs
over six months of age.
Over – Directional signal given to
dog by handler. The handler's right or
left arm & hand are raised horizontally from the waist telling the dog to
move in the direction indicated by the arm. Most common on blind retrieves but can be used
as a term to send the dog on a mark or a remote send.
Pattern – A drill designed to teach a
specific routing or routines, such as lining or casting.
Pattern Blinds - blind
retrieves the dog learns by repetition. They
are usually taught blinds where the dog knows the location of the blinds and
which are repeated. They teach the retriever how to get from the
line to a blind and build momentum.
Pattern Field – A series of bumpers placed in
the same location every time, generally in the shape of a (t) or a double (t)
where two lines, separated by 40 - 50 yards intersect the centerline. Used to
teach handling skills to dogs.
Perseverance – One of the qualities scored
by the judges. Willingness to get to the
area of the fall and hunt until the bird is found and retrieved. Can also be referred to as “courage” or “hunting”
Pick Up – When the handler calls the
dog back to the line before he has completed his series, usually because the
dog is failing the test. The judges ask the handler to “pick up” his dog based
on the dog’s performance.
Pig – A slow moving, disinterested
retriever in the field. A retriever with no style.
Pile – A group of bumpers placed
near each other. A pile is used in repetitious type drills where the handler is
repeating a concept. The bumpers should be placed far enough apart that the dog
picks up the first one it comes to without looking through the rest of the
pile, and then will quickly return to the handler.
Pin – When a dog runs directly to
the fall and picks up the object without a hunt.
Poison Bird – A mark the dog must ignore to
successfully complete the assigned task, usually a blind. It’s call "poison" because, in a
Test, if the dog picks it up, it might as well be dead because it will be out
of competition. A bird that must not be
retrieved until after a certain order, typically a poison bird is a mark that
must not be retrieved until the dog has picked up a blind.
Popping – When a dog is sent for a mark
or a blind, runs part of the way, but then turns, and sits or stands, looking
at its handler for instruction. This can be considered a lack of perseverance or
trainability and will be scored accordingly.
Professional ( pro ) – One who derives any
portion of their income from the training of dogs.
Premium – A notice sent out by the Club
holding an event. This notice usually includes the time/date/place of stakes
being held, entry cost, Judges names, directions and other information
concerning the event.
Punch Bird – A term used to identify the
placement of a longer mark in relation to the other marks in the field. A
triple is thrown, the first is 100 yards away, the second is 200 yards away,
and the third is 125 yards away. The second mark is called a "punch
bird" because the dog must go short, then short, then long and
"punch" through the short bird marks.
Quad – Same as for double and triple
only now you are throwing four objects. Four consecutive objects that must then
be remembered by the dog and handler.
Qualifying Stake/Qualified All
Age – For dogs
that are over 6 months old that have never placed or been awarded a JAM or CM in Open
or Limited Staked or placed in an Amateur Stake or won two first places in
qualifying stakes. This event is commonly viewed as the steppingstone to all
age events, although some say it is a pronouncement that the dog is now proficient
enough to be competitive in all-age events. The qualifying is one event where
you can see the greatest variability in the difficulty of each series. There is
typically a set of land marks, a land blind, water blind and water marks. The
designation of QAA means that you can run a Limited or Special all age stake.
Recast—When a dog makes a start toward
a marked fall, but stops within a short distance (usually 15 feet) and returns
to—or is called back by—its handler. The dog is then sent again to retrieve the
mark. This is allowed at the Junior or Senior level in hunt tests if the recast seems to be
due to confusion by the dog as to whether it was actually released to retrieve
Release Command – Used to signal the dog when
it is no longer working and can relax
Remote Cast – A cast that is given while
the dog is in front and facing handler; a blind usually starts with the dog being sent
back from the heel position, after that initial cast all casts are remote casts.
Retired – (As in a “retired gun” or a
“retired mark.”) In field trials, gunners/throwers hide so they don’t give the
dog any clue as to where the marks landed.
Retired Gun – Used in field trial multiple
marks. After the gunner has thrown the object to be retrieved, the gunner moves
to a concealed location so when the dog returns to the line and looks out to
their mark, they are hidden from view.
Secondary Selection – When the handler decides
which bird will be picked up next. They may not follow the order in which they
Series – A group of retrieves marks or
blinds. Generally, you must pass each series to be called back for the next
SH – Senior Hunter - An AKC/CKC title
hunt test title used as a suffix. The Senior Hunt Test consists of one land
blind; one water blind; one double land mark; one double water mark; a walkup in AKC; an upland test in CKC; a
diversion shot and/ or mark and an honor For a title, a dog must receive 4
qualifying scores at a licensed or member test if the dog already has a junior
hunter title. Otherwise, a dog must receive 5 qualifying scores if they do not
already have a junior hunter title.
Shopping – The retriever picks up and
drops various bumpers at the pile during yard work, “deciding” which one he
wants to pick up.
Sight Blind – A
blind the dog can see before being sent either
by being visible, or having a visible marker at the location.
Single – A single retrieve or mark.
Slips A Whistle – The dog does not stop on a
whistle to be given a cast by his handler. Sometimes the dog cannot hear the
whistle due to great distance or running water, and other times the dog doesn’t
want to hear the whistle (this is known as a whistle refusal)!
SOB – Stumble-On-Bird
Steady – (steadiness) The term used to
describe when a dog sees a bird or birds fall while remaining in the position
commanded by the handler. A steady dog should remain steady until commanded to
do otherwise by the handler.
Senior and Master levels, the dog must be steady without restraint (no collar,
no leash, no contact with handler).You may hear or see the phrase, “steady to
wing and shot,” which means the dog will sit or stand by the handler when a
bird is flushed (or thrown) into the air and when shots are fired i.e sit to flush.
Steady to Shot – A steady dog holds even after
Steady to Wing – A steady dog holds even after
the bird flushes.
Stake – Each field event has several
levels or stakes of competition. For example, the Amateur Stake is for
non-professional handlers and the Derby Stake is for young dogs.
Sticking – A very slow release of a
bird, to the point you’ll question whether or not the dog will give up the
Style – One of the qualities scored
by the judges. How the dog proceeds to the mark and returns to the handler. The
dog should be enthusiastic and willing to complete the task. The dog should
also respond quickly and obediently to any directions from the handler. A
stylish dog is eager, moves well, has a good water entry and generally is a
pleasure to watch.
Suction – Any factor that causes a
retriever to deviate from a line to a blind or a mark; suction can occur from an old
fall, terrain, water, wind bird boys are some factors that may act as suction
to a bird or bumper.
Swim-by – A drill for teaching control
around the water. The handler requires the dog to take a “more-water” return to
enforce water/shoreline discipline.
Switch – A dog is sent to a mark,
establishes a hunt, then leaves that area and establishes a hunt in the area of
another fall or to a bulldog.
Switching – This is when the dog has gone
to the area of one fall and has established a hunt, but then leaves that area
and goes to the area of another fall. This can happen on a multiple retrieve
(double, triple, etc.) or can happen if a dog has retrieved one single, is sent
for a second single but after establishing a hunt, returns to where the first
single was retrieved. This is a
Test Dog – A non-competing dog that is
run first to demonstrate the mechanics of the tests imposed by that days’
series- to show what the terrain is like and what challenges to expect. The test dog also shows strengths and
weaknesses of the test to the judges before actual scoring begins.
The Line—this is the area designated by
the judges for the dog and handler to approach for the test. The handler may be
required to reach the line, sit the dog and signal when ready, or the handler
may be told by the judges that the scoring of the event will start as the dog
and handler are approaching the line (called a walk-up test). “The line” can
also be used to refer to the preferred path from the starting point to a mark
or a blind retrieve. Handlers or judges may refer to “lining the dog,” which
means positioning the dog by the handlers side handler’s side so it will run
the direction desired toward a mark or a blind.
Tight Hunt – When the dogs runs directly
to the area of the fall and after a short hunt in a small area directly around
the fall, finds the item.
Trainability – One of the qualities scored by
the judges. This is measured by obedience, control, responsiveness, steadiness
Triple – Three objects (bird, bumper,
etc.) a dog sees thrown for it to retrieve. These objects are not thrown at the
same time. A triple tests the dog’s memory as it must pick up one item, return
to it’s handler, then go get the other item, bring it back, then go get the
third item and bring it back.
Two-Down-The-Shore – Generally, a water double
thrown so as after picking up the go bird, the dog must swim by the go bird
fall area and pick up the memory bird. This is a tougher concept than it sounds
and is a basic concept for advance dog work.
Under-The-Arc – When the line to a blind
takes the dog between a mark and the gunner who has thrown that mark, the dog
is said to have run "under-the-arc."
Unsteady – A dog that breaks from the
line before he is sent or moves while honoring another dog’s work.
Walking Singles – A single mark thrown by a
bird boy (BB) for a dog with no other gunners visible and, as the dog is released, the BB walks away from the
area of the fall.
Walk Up – A mark or marks that occur
while the dog is in motion in the heel position with the handler. A typical walkup will
expect the dog to cease progress upon the first mark and shot, usually in a sitting
position, and to remain there until all marks have fallen and the handler
commands the retriever to pick up a mark.
Whistle Refusal – Failure of a dog to respond
to a whistle command.
Wipe-Out Mark (Wiper Bird) – A mark that crosses the line
to a previous mark; by throwing a mark across a line to a memory bird the
memory bird is wiped out.
Yard Work – The term used to describe any
number of drills that can be done in and around the kennel area.